"Autophagy (or autophagocytosis; from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγοςautóphagos, meaning "self-devouring"[1] and κύτοςkýtos, meaning "hollow")[2] is the natural, conserved degradation of the cell that removes unnecessary or dysfunctional components through a lysosome-dependent regulated mechanism.[3] It allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components.[4][5] Although initially characterized as a primordial degradation pathway induced to protect against starvation, it has become increasingly clear that autophagy also plays a major role in the homeostasis of non-starved cells.[6] Defects in autophagy have been linked to various human diseases, including neurodegeneration and cancer, and interest in modulating autophagy as a potential treatment for these diseases has grown rapidly.[6][7]

Four forms of autophagy have been identified: macroautophagymicroautophagychaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), and crinophagy.[8] In macroautophagy (the most thoroughly researched form of autophagy), cytoplasmic components (like mitochondria) are targeted and isolated from the rest of the cell within a double-membrane vesicle known as an autophagosome,[9][10] which, in time, fuses with an available lysosome, bringing its specialty process of waste management and disposal; and eventually the contents of the vesicle (now called an autolysosome) are degraded and recycled. In crinophagy (the least well-known and researched form of autophagy), unnecessary secretory granules are degraded and recycled.[8]

In disease, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to stress, promoting survival of the cell; but in other cases, it appears to promote cell death and morbidity. In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular energy levels.

The word "autophagy" was in existence and frequently used from the middle of the 19th century.[11] In its present usage, the term autophagy was coined by Belgian biochemist Christian de Duve in 1963 based on his discovery of the functions of lysosome.[3] The identification of autophagy-related genes in yeast in the 1990s allowed researchers to deduce the mechanisms of autophagy,[12][13][14][15][16] which eventually led to the award of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Japanese researcher Yoshinori Ohsumi.[17]"- Autophagy - Wikipedia


1.) Autophagy and cancer

2.) Autophagy in the pathogenesis of disease

3.) Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Triggers Autophagy

4.) Autophagy: Renovation of Cells and Tissues

5.) LC3 conjugation system in mammalian Autophagy

6.) Autophagy and Metabolism

7.) Mammalian Autophagy: core molecular machinery and signaling regulation

8.) Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism

9.) Autophagy Suppresses Tumorigenesis through Elimination of p62

10.) Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion

11.) Apoptosis, Autophagy, and more

12.) Methods in Mammalian Autophagy Research

13.) Potential therapeutic applications of Autophagy

14.) Autophagy: process and function

15.) Autophagy as a Regulated Pathway of Cellular Degradation

16.) Autophagy in immunity and inflammation

17.) Loss of Autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration in mice

18.) Parkin is recruited selectively to impaired mitochondria and promotes their Autophagy

19.) Autophagy and Aging

20.) Autophagy and the Integrated Stress Response

21.) Suppression of basal Autophagy in neural cells causes neurodegenerative disease in mice

22.) Autophagy in Human Health and Disease

23.) Role of Autophagy in cancer

24.) Bcl-2 Antiapoptotic Proteins Inhibit Beclin 1-Dependent Autophagy

25.) Self-eating and self-killing: crosstalk between Autophagy and apoptosis

26.) Autophagy: molecular machinery for self-eating

27.) mTOR regulation of Autophagy

28.) Regulation Mechanisms and Signaling Pathways of Autophagy

29.) Autophagy: cellular and molecular mechanisms

30.) protein conjugation system essential for Autophagy

31.) Induction of Autophagy and inhibition of tumorigenesis by beclin 1

32.) Development by Self-Digestion: Molecular Mechanisms and Biological Functions of Autophagy

33.) Autophagy in Health and Disease: A Double-Edged Sword

34.) Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?

35.) TFEB Links Autophagy to Lysosomal Biogenesis

36.) Methods for monitoring Autophagy

37.) AMPK and mTOR regulate Autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1

38.) The role of Autophagy during the early neonatal starvation period

39.) Death by design: apoptosis, necrosis and Autophagy

40.) LC3 and Autophagy